Interview with Martina who works at the Mosaik Workshop in Mytilene on the island of Lesvos in early December 2016 as part of Manchester Museum’s Collecting Life project. You can also see bags made out of recycled materials from abandoned life jackets on display in the Museum entrance.
Three months to the day that I visited the Greek island of Lesvos, the refugee’s life jacket that I collected there has gone on display in the entrance to Manchester Museum. The life jacket is just one of hundreds of thousands of life jackets abandoned on the island by refugees, many of them fleeing the civil war in Syria. Some 500,000 people have been killed in the Syrian conflict and eleven million people have been forced to leave their homes. Some refugees enter the European Union by crossing the narrow but dangerous straits between Turkey and Lesvos, and tragically some have lost their lives. Nearly 100 people drowned off the coast of Lesvos in just one week in 2016.
As part of the ‘Collecting Life’ project at Manchester Museum I interviewed a Syrian man now living in Manchester, the municipal authorities in Mytilene on Lesvos, two aid workers from the camp for vulnerable refugees at Kara Tepe, the manager of a workshop where life jackets are recycled to make bags and a lecturer at the University of the Aegean. Short films of the interviews can be seen on an AV screen next to the life jacket. The interpretation includes photographs taken by photographers who kindly allowed us to use their work for free or at a discounted rate: Nikolas Giorgiou, Giannis Iliadis and Rasmus Degnbol.
We are displaying this life jacket as an example of our new approach to collecting, to address current issues. It is particularly important that Manchester Museum collect objects and interviews about current issues such as migration because our mission is to promote understanding between different cultures and to work towards a more sustainable world. Migration, we know, was an important factor affecting the outcome of the Referendum about Britain’s membership of the European Union and in the election of Donald Trump as president of the U.S.A. We hope that this work will help us to reach out to Syrian members of the community as well as other diaspora communities.
This socially-engaged work is all the more important in the aftermath of the Referendum. By doing this work of this kind the Museum aligns itself with values of compassion, tolerance and mutual respect. The Common Cause Foundation is currently working with the Museum to develop this aspect of what we do. When I attended the ‘Working Internationally in a Post Brexit World’ conference held at the Natural History Museum on 2nd March 2017 there was tremendous interest in the Museum’s life jacket project. We’d like to see how the display can showcase the compassionate values we advocate and represent.
We’d welcome any comments or thoughts you may have on the project. You can comment using social media. Share your thoughts with us using #MMLifeJacket
Continuing the series of blog posts telling the story of my visit to the Greek island of Lesvos in December 2016 to collect a refugee’s life jacket for Manchester Museum…
After my visit to Kara Tepe, I visited a camp for vulnerable refugees at Pikpa with Dr Yulie Tzirou of the University of the Aegean. The first thing you see on arrival is a line of life jackets tied to the gate bearing letters that say ‘Safe Passage’ and this is also stamped on the bags made from recycled materials at Mosaik. Fortunately, on this occasion I was allowed to take photos and I interviewed some of the staff working there and saw the chalets where the refugees live. I asked Yulie for permission to take the photos you see in this blog and no photos or films were taken showing refugees out of respect for their dignity. Pikpa is much smaller than Kara Tepe, and Yulie referred to it several times as a community.
Refugees could come and go as they wished, there was a kitchen, communal cooking and eating facilities and heated accommodation, some of it made from recycled boats abandoned on the Lesvos coast. The refugees had a garden and they composted waste material from the kitchens. I interviewed Yulie and a volunteer called Imelda who organises classes for the children. Imelda told me how important it was that the children should have order and stability in their lives after everything that they had gone through. There was a happy and welcoming atmosphere in the camp.
I came away from Pikpa full of the greatest admiration for the humanitarian work undertaken by the volunteers. Whilst there is an agreement with Turkey to patrol the borders more closely and a reciprocal scheme to take refugees from camps in Turkey in return for taking refugees from Lesvos, refugees are still arriving on the island, albeit in much smaller numbers than last year. The new arrivals need help and support. Time will tell whether the agreement continues to hold but if it breaks down the island may face the large numbers of refugees making the crossing from Turkey as happened in 2015.
Now that the life jacket is in the Museum we are making plans to put it on display together with bags made from recycled life jackets. The Museum hopes to be able to host a temporary exhibition about the refugee crisis in Lesvos during Refugee Week 2017 (19th to 25th June). Students from the University of Manchester’s Art Gallery and Museum Studies (AGMS) course will work on the exhibition, which is inspired by an exhibition about the refugee crisis shown in Mytilene and Athens. At the time of writing it is also hoped to work on this project with students from the University of the Aegean.
In this modest way we hope to engage our visitors about the collecting life project theme of migration. Through it we will tell visitors about the humanitarian response to the refugee crisis and hopefully generate interest and support for the work of the volunteers and organisations trying to help refugees. Director of the Manchester Museum, Nick Merriman, wrote in January’s Museum’s Journal that the Brexit vote had revealed ‘a vein of intolerance and xenophobia that we hoped had been consigned to the past’. In the aftermath of the Brexit vote it is now important more than ever that we do not lose sight of the values of compassion, tolerance and mutual respect that are enshrined within our museums and art galleries. If the collecting life project also gives a boost to acquiring contemporary and topical objects for museum collections, then so much the better.
This collecting life visit would not have been possible without the help and support of a number of individuals and institutions: the Mayor of Municipality of Mytilene, Mr Gallinos, and his Senior Advisor, Mr Andriotis; Dr Evi Sampanikou, Dr Yulie Tzirou, Dr Katarina Nikolarea and Prof Dmitri Papageorgiou at the University of the Aegean; Martina at Mosaik; and last but not least Dr Areti Damala at the University of Strathclyde who very kindly facilitated the initial contact with staff at the University of the Aegean. To all of the above and all the other Greek people and refugees I met on my visit to Lesvos, I’d like to express my sincerest thanks and those of the Manchester Museum.
Read about the installation of the refugee’s life jacket in the following blog post:
Continuing the blog posts telling the story of my visit to the Greek island of Lesvos in December 2016 to collect a refugee’s life jacket for Manchester Museum…
After visiting the workshop at Mosaik in Mytilene where life jackets are recycled and made into bags, I went to the refugee camp at Kara Tepe. This turned out to be a frustrating experience because although I had an official permit, I was not allowed to visit the camp. I learnt later that there had been some sort of disturbance and that I’d arrived at a difficult time.
Katerina Nikolarea and the Restoring Family Links initiative
I withdrew and sought the help of my new friends at the University of the Aegean, especially Katarina Nikolarea, who volunteers for the Mytilene branch of the Hellenic Red Cross. She very kindly arranged for me to visit Kara Tepe the following day. I also interviewed Katarina and she told me how the ordinary people of Lesvos had responded generously and spontaneously in the early days of the crisis by giving the refugees clothes and shoes, and food and water. Prices were discounted in shops to help refugees. This story often doesn’t get told. The help given by ordinary Greek people on the island is even more laudable given the economic problems that Greece has experienced in recent years.
Katarina told me about how her local branch of Hellenic Red Cross was helping refugees to keep in touch with one another. The Restoring Family Links initiative helps refugees to find and contact family members and loved ones. I learnt that families and friends are often split up by the people traffickers in order to cram as many people into the boats as possible. Refugees sometimes have no idea whether their nearest and dearest have even survived the crossing so this is a really important thing to do.
At the height of the crisis last year (2015) up to 6,000 refugees were arriving on the beaches of Lesvos every day, and this on an island with a Greek population of only 87,000. Refugees were sleeping rough on the streets and the island’s authorities were largely left to cope on their own to begin with. Since the signing of an agreement with Turkey earlier in 2016 the numbers of refugees have fallen dramatically but there are still camps with people either waiting for their papers to travel to countries in mainland Europe or to be returned to Turkey. They have the right of appeal and relatively few have returned to Turkey. Vessels from Frontex patrol the straits between Lesvos and Turkey.
The following day I succeeded in visiting the camp at Kara Tepe but sadly I was not allowed to take photographs nor film any interviews. I took some toys to give to the children in the camp. A guide showed me round. It was well-managed, tidy and comfortable, with a range of facilities for the guests as she called them and everyone seemed content in the circumstances. In the middle of the camp there is a monument built by the refugees using recycled material from boats they’d used to cross to Lesvos. My guide was not at liberty to answer questions that were considered sensitive, such as how many guests there were at Kara Tepe. I certainly wanted to respect the dignity of the refugees but I feel that we lost an opportunity to do some good in raising the profile of the refugees as part of the collecting life project at Manchester Museum. I was very grateful for the opportunity to see Kara Tepe and I naturally respect the wishes of the authorities in protecting the dignity of the people staying there but it means I was unable to make any visual record of my visit.
All was not lost, however, because later in the afternoon I visited a camp run by volunteers for vulnerable refugees at Pikpa. Again my visit there came about because of the good will of staff the University of the Aegean, to whom I am very grateful.
Continuing the blog posts telling the story of my visit to the Greek island of Lesvos in December 2016 to collect a refugee’s life jacket for Manchester Museum…
After taking receipt of life jacket or ‘sosivio’ from the Town Hall in Mytiline in Lesvos, I visited a centre for refugees called Mosaik with Dr Yulie Tzirou, a lecturer at the University of the Aegean, to see how life jackets are recycled to make into bags. There I met Martina, the Greek lady in charge of the workshop.
So many refugees have made the crossing to Lesvos and abandoned their life jackets on landing that piles upon piles of life jackets and inflatable boats have accumulated on the shores of the island. Both Greek volunteers and refugees work at the centre. There are also creative activities and language lessons, and access to legal advice. The refugees now on Lesvos can’t leave the island until their claims for asylum are processed with takes a long time. Without centres such as Mosaik there would be relatively few opportunities for them.
The sheer number of life jackets that have been abandoned on the island represents an environmental problem on a massive scale and one that the Deputy Mayor in charge of cleansing, Mr Kantzanos, has worked extremely hard to clear up. The life jackets that were lying on the beaches were also having an impact on tourism, which is an important source of income to the island during the summer. Making the discarded life jackets into bags helps deal with the problem and raises some money for the voluntary organisation that is trying to help the refugees.
In between visits to the Town Hall to collect the life jacket and to Mosaik to see recycling I found time to visit the Lesvos archaeological museum to see the beautiful Roman mosaics from the House of Menander. One shows Orpheus playing music surrounded by wild animals. Another smaller mosaic shows a large octopus stealing fish from a fishing boat. Although this is from a later period in Roman history it was a great opportunity to take some photographs for the temporary exhibition about Pliny the Elder and Roman Natural History scheduled for 2018. The octopus, in particular, is reminiscent of the story in the Natural History about a 60lb monster that raided fish farms in the province of Baetica in Southern Spain. A fence was built to keep it out with no success (what is it with Romans and walls?) and finally it was cornered with dogs and killed and ended up on display pickled in the governor’s residence as a sort of tourist attraction.
The next instalment of this blog about my visit to the island of Lesvos to collect a refugee’s life jacket will be released shortly.
Migratory birds often symbolise the passing of time and the changing of the seasons. On the island of Cephalonia off the North West coast of Greece the distinctive bubbly, piping, throaty call of the European Bee Eater announces the coming of spring.
This small migratory bird (it measures a little less than a foot long or less than 30cm) breeds mainly in southern Europe and in parts of northern African and western Asia. It is one of the most colourful bird species in Europe with brown and yellow upper parts, a light blue breast mostly green wings, a black stripe across the eyes and a dark long bill. Sexes are fairly alike.
European Bee Eaters are a really vocal species, often calling when foraging or migrating. They are often first heard during migration and then spotted in the air.
These Bee-eaters are colonial breeders and excavate their nest mainly in sandy banks, preferably near river shores. The species is also able to make its next in pastures, cultivated areas where there are trees, meadows and plains, and hillsides as long as sandy sections are available.
As expected by its scientific name, Merops apiaster, which in Greek and Latin means bee eater, the species feeds mainly on bees, wasps, and hornets. They catch their prey in flight, taking off from nearby perches . To avoid the painful sting of its prey, Bee Eaters repeatedly hit the insect on a hard surface before consuming it.
Studies have shown that the impact on bee populations at the breeding sites is small, but this can cause conflicts with bee keepers especially during migration when large congregations of bee eaters can occur in relatively small areas.
European Bee Eaters winter in Sub-Saharan Africa. That means that every year the species needs to cross the desert and in most cases the Mediterranean Sea twice a year.
Seeing the European Bee Eaters really enhanced my annual holiday in Cephalonia in May 2016.
I am most grateful to Christos Barboutis of the Greek Ornithological Society for contributing to this blog post.
A few days ago I had the great pleasure of visiting Ribchester Roman fort to film a thematic collecting interview about migration with Dr Duncan Sayer who is Reader in Archaeology in the Department of Forensic and Applied Science at the University of Central Lancashire. There is quite a long history of archaeological interest in Ribchester, not least because of wonderful discoveries such as the Roman cavalry helmet now in the British Museum and the tombstone of a Roman cavalryman.
The current excavations inside the fort made an interesting backdrop to the interview. Duncan told me about the different regiments that had been garrisoned at Ribchester during the Roman period. Soldiers from the 20th Legion built the fort during the 70s AD to control the strategic river crossing nearby. Auxiliary cavalryman from northern Spain – the Asturians – and later Sarmatians from what is now Hungary in eastern Europe held the fort in the 2nd and 3rd centuries.
When we talk about “the Roman Army” you might expect that most of the soldiers if not from Rome itself were at least Italians but this is not the case. Many auxiliary soldiers were recruited from the provinces and allied peoples who provided specialised skills, such as horse riding or archery, which the Romans valued. The auxiliaries served in the army for 25 years in return for Roman citizenship, which indicates how highly citizen rights were valued. In Manchester Museum’s archaeology collection we have an auxiliary diploma or citizenship award that was presented to a man who originally came from Syria. It was found at Ravenglass in Cumbria.
In the interview Duncan spoke about the relationships between soldiers and the local people. Although the soldiers could not be legally married they formed long-term relationships with local women and had children. When they completed their service these relationships were formalised. Any sons wanting to follow in their fathers’ footsteps would join the legions as citizens. The Spanish and later the Hungarians may have received fresh recruits from home but over time the pattern shifted and local men joined the regiments.
Inscriptions provide evidence for Spaniards, Syrians, Hungarians and many other peoples in Roman Britain. Earlier thematic collecting interviews have featured Swiss and Noricans, again from eastern Europe. This provides an interesting counterpoint to the recent referendum on the UK’s membership of the European Union in which immigration was a significant issue for some voters. Archaeologically and historically Ribchester and many other Roman sites in Britain provide clear evidence of the movement of people from all over Europe and beyond almost 2,000 years ago. This mixing of different peoples and cultures throughout history has made us who we are today. The discoveries at Ribchester provide a little perspective in the debate about immigration in the immediate aftermath of the referendum vote.
A thematic collecting interview with Gabrielle Heffernan, Assistant Curator of Designated Collections at Hull Museums and Art Gallery, about a Barn Swallow shown on the Four Seasons mosaic from Ruston Roman villa in the Hull and East Riding Museum in Hull. The bird is shown perching on the shoulder of the depiction of Spring on the mosaic.