We recently interviewed Matthew Marshall of Somerset Wildlife Trust about their conservation work on the Somerset Levels and the vital role of water in the landscape.
Rachel Webster and I recently visited the National lobster Hatchery to meet Ben Marshall and find out about their work to conserve the UK’s lobster population.
Migratory birds often symbolise the passing of time and the changing of the seasons. On the island of Cephalonia off the North West coast of Greece the distinctive bubbly, piping, throaty call of the European Bee Eater announces the coming of spring.
This small migratory bird (it measures a little less than a foot long or less than 30cm) breeds mainly in southern Europe and in parts of northern African and western Asia. It is one of the most colourful bird species in Europe with brown and yellow upper parts, a light blue breast mostly green wings, a black stripe across the eyes and a dark long bill. Sexes are fairly alike.
European Bee Eaters are a really vocal species, often calling when foraging or migrating. They are often first heard during migration and then spotted in the air.
These Bee-eaters are colonial breeders and excavate their nest mainly in sandy banks, preferably near river shores. The species is also able to make its next in pastures, cultivated areas where there are trees, meadows and plains, and hillsides as long as sandy sections are available.
As expected by its scientific name, Merops apiaster, which in Greek and Latin means bee eater, the species feeds mainly on bees, wasps, and hornets. They catch their prey in flight, taking off from nearby perches . To avoid the painful sting of its prey, Bee Eaters repeatedly hit the insect on a hard surface before consuming it.
Studies have shown that the impact on bee populations at the breeding sites is small, but this can cause conflicts with bee keepers especially during migration when large congregations of bee eaters can occur in relatively small areas.
European Bee Eaters winter in Sub-Saharan Africa. That means that every year the species needs to cross the desert and in most cases the Mediterranean Sea twice a year.
Seeing the European Bee Eaters really enhanced my annual holiday in Cephalonia in May 2016.
I am most grateful to Christos Barboutis of the Greek Ornithological Society for contributing to this blog post.
A few days ago I had the great pleasure of visiting Ribchester Roman fort to film a thematic collecting interview about migration with Dr Duncan Sayer who is Reader in Archaeology in the Department of Forensic and Applied Science at the University of Central Lancashire. There is quite a long history of archaeological interest in Ribchester, not least because of wonderful discoveries such as the Roman cavalry helmet now in the British Museum and the tombstone of a Roman cavalryman.
The current excavations inside the fort made an interesting backdrop to the interview. Duncan told me about the different regiments that had been garrisoned at Ribchester during the Roman period. Soldiers from the 20th Legion built the fort during the 70s AD to control the strategic river crossing nearby. Auxiliary cavalryman from northern Spain – the Asturians – and later Sarmatians from what is now Hungary in eastern Europe held the fort in the 2nd and 3rd centuries.
When we talk about “the Roman Army” you might expect that most of the soldiers if not from Rome itself were at least Italians but this is not the case. Many auxiliary soldiers were recruited from the provinces and allied peoples who provided specialised skills, such as horse riding or archery, which the Romans valued. The auxiliaries served in the army for 25 years in return for Roman citizenship, which indicates how highly citizen rights were valued. In Manchester Museum’s archaeology collection we have an auxiliary diploma or citizenship award that was presented to a man who originally came from Syria. It was found at Ravenglass in Cumbria.
In the interview Duncan spoke about the relationships between soldiers and the local people. Although the soldiers could not be legally married they formed long-term relationships with local women and had children. When they completed their service these relationships were formalised. Any sons wanting to follow in their fathers’ footsteps would join the legions as citizens. The Spanish and later the Hungarians may have received fresh recruits from home but over time the pattern shifted and local men joined the regiments.
Inscriptions provide evidence for Spaniards, Syrians, Hungarians and many other peoples in Roman Britain. Earlier thematic collecting interviews have featured Swiss and Noricans, again from eastern Europe. This provides an interesting counterpoint to the recent referendum on the UK’s membership of the European Union in which immigration was a significant issue for some voters. Archaeologically and historically Ribchester and many other Roman sites in Britain provide clear evidence of the movement of people from all over Europe and beyond almost 2,000 years ago. This mixing of different peoples and cultures throughout history has made us who we are today. The discoveries at Ribchester provide a little perspective in the debate about immigration in the immediate aftermath of the referendum vote.
Last week I filmed a thematic collecting interview with Sumir Tagra and Jiten Thukral at Manchester Museum about a game that they have created called Walk of Life. Tagra and Thukral are artists based in New Delhi in India and they came to Manchester Museum to train Visitor Assistants and volunteers how to play the game so that they can lead sessions with members of the public over the summer.The idea of the Walk of Life is to make people more aware of water conservation issues.
Walk of life is a board game in which up to six players play a number of rounds, moving a boat shaped vessel containing the players’ markers. Each player is given a cup containing a set amount of water. In each round they select ‘Karma’ cards from a pack and act on what the cards say: if the player has done something good for the environment such as planting trees, they receive water credits; if they have used water in an unsustainable way they have to drink a certain quantity of the water in their cup; or the effect may be neutral. Players may draw a card which tells them to spin the roulette wheel which can have negative consequences for that player and the players sitting either side if the wheel indicates there has been a disaster which affects the community’s water supply.
As the game progresses some players may experience a water deficit and if they have credits they can take some water from the communal reservoir held in a decanter on the table. This reservoir is finite and very quickly a point is reached where the supply in the reservoir is no longer sufficient to meet the player’s requirements. In this situation, unless helped by another player, the player ‘in deficit’ has to drop out of the game.
The nice thing about this game is that players can play competitively or collaboratively, in which case there is a greater chance of more players reaching the end of the Walk of Life. The fact that the pieces representing the players are in a boat makes the point that so far as water is concerned we really are all in this together.
In the game I played last Thursday players were trying to support one another and even so only two players made it to the end of the game. This makes you think about our shared dependence on water supplies and our communal interest in ensuring that water supplies are used sustainably. When I interviewed them for Manchester Museum’s thematic collecting project Tagra and Thukral told me they were very encouraged to see that players were implementing some of the actions that resulted in water credits in the game at home: for instance not running the tap when brushing their teeth.
I thought this was a really good way to encourage people to think about the issue of water sustainability in a non-preaching way that is actually a lot of fun. The only thing I would say is that this is the first board game I’ve played where at the end of the game I’ve had to dash off immediately to the loos to spend a penny!
Dr Nicky Nielsen, a ceramicist at the University of Liverpool and Teaching Assistant on the University of Manchester’s Egyptology Online courses, discusses the movement of styles and techniques in pottery production around the eastern Mediterranean region about 1400-1200 BC.
Manchester-based creative practitioner SuhailK talks about the theme of migration in his work, and in the output of American jazz musician, poet and philosopher SunRa (1914-1993). SunRa’s work explored intergalactic migration inspired by a close connection to ancient Egypt. Pharaonic iconography – commonly displayed in museums – has migrated out from Egypt, morphed and inspired new ways of creative thinking.
A thematic collecting interview with Gabrielle Heffernan, Assistant Curator of Designated Collections at Hull Museums and Art Gallery, about a Barn Swallow shown on the Four Seasons mosaic from Ruston Roman villa in the Hull and East Riding Museum in Hull. The bird is shown perching on the shoulder of the depiction of Spring on the mosaic.